The Roman Empire had fostered unexcelled glassmakers, but many of their techniques were forgotten with its decline. Over the centuries, nearly all of the techniques were revived and some further developed by Muslim glassmakers.

The many methods include the millefiori technique, overlay glass, sandwich glass, marvered and pinched glass, lustre and enamel decoration, various kinds of cutting and engraving techniques, and methods for making simpler types, such as blown and molded pieces.