Stone and Stucco
Stone can be categorized into three groups: gemstones, semi-precious stones, and coarser varieties.
Gemstones cut in different ways were used to embellish jewelry and weapons. Semi-precious stones such as rock crystal, jade, carnelian, and jasper were used to make small, finely worked luxury items, from jugs to dagger hilts, but also for seals. In addition, they were employed as an inlay material for pietra dura work.
Marble, alabaster, and sandstone are the varieties of stone that were most often utilized for architectural decorations, from capitals and wall reliefs to jalis and inscription panels. They were also used for other sculptural purposes, for example tombstones and fountains.
Stucco is an artificial material that consists of lime, marble dust, and gypsum. It was used extensively for wall decorations in both low and high relief in Iraq and Iran during the 8th and 9th century. The stucco technique perhaps reached its culmination in Nasrid Spain.